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Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (/ˈɡɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn, ˈdʒɛŋ-/; Mongolian: Чингис хаан, Çingis hán [t͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋ] ( listen)) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan;[note 3] born Temüjin,[note 4] c. 1162 – August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations – especially in the Khwarazmian and Western Xia controlled lands. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China.